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INDIAN NATIONAL MOVEMENT

Revolt of 1857; Sepoy Mutiny

Overview: The Revolt of 1857, also known as the First War of Indian Independence or the Sepoy Mutiny, was a significant uprising against British rule in India. It began as a mutiny by Indian soldiers (sepoys) in the British East India Company's army but quickly escalated into a widespread rebellion involving civilians.

Causes: The causes of the revolt were multifaceted, including discontentment among Indian soldiers due to religious and cultural issues, resentment towards British economic policies, and the use of greased cartridges, which offended religious beliefs.

Key Events: The rebellion erupted in Meerut in May 1857 and spread to various parts of Northern and Central India, with notable incidents in Delhi, Kanpur, Lucknow, and Jhansi. The rebels proclaimed Bahadur Shah II as the Emperor of India, seeking to overthrow British rule.

Outcome: The revolt was eventually suppressed by the British, who employed brutal tactics to quell the uprising. It led to the dissolution of the East India Company and the transfer of control over India to the British Crown in 1858 through the Government of India Act.

Impact: Despite its failure, the revolt sowed the seeds of nationalism and resistance against British rule, inspiring future generations of freedom fighters.



Suppression of the revolt led to the dissolution of the East India Company and transfer of control over India to the British Crown.

Foundation Of Indian National Congress

Overview: The Indian National Congress (INC) was founded in 1885 by Allan Octavian Hume, Dadabhai Naoroji, Dinshaw Wacha, and others. It was initially formed as a platform to voice Indian grievances to the British government.

Objectives: The INC aimed to promote Indian interests, advocate for political reforms, and eventually achieve self-government or swaraj. Initially, it mainly represented the interests of the Indian elite and educated professionals.

Early Years: In its early years, the INC focused on constitutional methods of agitation, including petitions, resolutions, and moderate demands for reforms such as Indian representation in government and civil services.

Leadership: Prominent leaders such as Dadabhai Naoroji, Gopal Krishna Gokhale, and later, Mohandas Karamchand Gandhi, played pivotal roles in shaping the INC's ideology and strategies.

Impact: The INC became the foremost political organization advocating for Indian self-rule. It provided a platform for political expression, fostered nationalist sentiments, and laid the foundation for India's independence movement.



Foundation of the INC marked a significant step in the Indian nationalist movement, providing a political platform for Indian grievances and aspirations.

Swadeshi Movement

Overview: The Swadeshi Movement was a mass movement against British colonial rule and economic exploitation launched in response to the Partition of Bengal by Lord Curzon in 1905.

Objectives: The movement aimed to boycott British goods, promote indigenous industries, and foster national consciousness among Indians. It advocated the use of Indian-made products (Swadeshi) and the rejection of British imports (Boycott).

Key Events: The movement saw widespread protests, boycotts, and the promotion of indigenous handicrafts and industries. It inspired acts of civil disobedience, including the refusal to buy British textiles and the burning of foreign goods.

Leadership: Leaders such as Aurobindo Ghosh, Bipin Chandra Pal, and Lala Lajpat Rai played significant roles in mobilizing support for the Swadeshi Movement and promoting nationalist ideals.

Legacy: The Swadeshi Movement marked a significant shift towards mass-based, militant nationalism in India. It demonstrated the power of non-cooperation and boycott as tools of resistance and laid the groundwork for future movements against British rule.



The Swadeshi Movement promoted indigenous industries and fostered nationalist sentiments, laying the groundwork for future movements against British rule.

Muslim League Founded

Overview: The All-India Muslim League was founded in Dhaka in 1906, representing the interests of Muslims in British India. It emerged in response to perceived marginalization of Muslims within the Indian National Congress.

Objectives: The Muslim League initially sought to protect the political and economic interests of Muslims and ensure their representation in legislative bodies and government.

Significance: The founding of the Muslim League marked the beginning of organized political mobilization among Muslims in India. It provided a platform for Muslim leaders to articulate their grievances and aspirations.

Partition Demand: Over time, the Muslim League's demands evolved, culminating in the Lahore Resolution of 1940, which called for the creation of separate Muslim-majority states in India.

Impact: The Muslim League's demand for a separate nation for Muslims eventually led to the partition of India and the creation of Pakistan in 1947.



The founding of the Muslim League marked the beginning of organized political mobilization among Muslims in India, eventually leading to the partition of India and the creation of Pakistan in 1947.

Ghadar Movement

Overview: The Ghadar Movement was a revolutionary movement launched by Indian expatriates in the United States and Canada with the aim of overthrowing British rule in India.

Origins: The movement was initiated by Indian immigrants who were influenced by nationalist and socialist ideas prevalent in North America at the time. The Ghadar Party, formed in 1913, became the primary vehicle for the movement.

Objectives: The Ghadarites sought to mobilize Indian soldiers, particularly in the British Indian Army, to revolt against British rule. They published the Ghadar newspaper to spread revolutionary propaganda and organized underground networks.

Key Events: The Ghadarites planned an armed uprising in India, which was scheduled to coincide with the outbreak of World War I. However, British intelligence uncovered the plot, leading to arrests and the suppression of the movement.

Legacy: Although the Ghadar Movement failed to achieve its immediate objectives, it inspired future generations of revolutionaries and contributed to the growth of militant nationalism in India.



The Ghadar Movement inspired future generations of revolutionaries and contributed to the growth of militant nationalism in India.

Home Rule Movement

Overview: The Home Rule Movement was launched by Bal Gangadhar Tilak and Annie Besant in 1916, advocating for self-government or Home Rule for India within the British Empire.

Objectives: The movement aimed to mobilize public opinion in favor of self-rule and to demand constitutional reforms that would grant Indians greater autonomy in governing their own affairs.

Key Features: The movement was characterized by mass mobilization, public meetings, and the dissemination of propaganda through newspapers and pamphlets. Tilak and Besant traveled extensively across India, addressing large gatherings of supporters.

Impact: The Home Rule Movement succeeded in popularizing the idea of self-government among the Indian masses. It laid the groundwork for future agitations for political reforms and played a crucial role in the growth of nationalist sentiment.

Legacy: Although the movement was temporarily overshadowed by the Non-Cooperation Movement and other mass movements, it contributed to the gradual evolution of India's demand for self-rule and influenced subsequent political developments.



The Home Rule Movement popularized the idea of self-government among the Indian masses and laid the groundwork for future agitations for political reforms.