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Size & Location of India

Location of India

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Indian & The World

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Solved Question for You

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Physical Features of India

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Drainage System of India

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Climate of India

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Natural Vegetation and Wildlife

Natural Vegetation

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Conservation of Wildlife and Forests

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Population of India

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Forests and Wildlife Resources

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Water Resources

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Mineral & Energy Resources

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Geography as a Discipline
This unit deals with:
  • Geography as an integrating discipline; as a science of spatial attributes.
  • Branches of geography; importance of physical geography.
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  • Geography equips you to appreciate diversity and investigate into the causes responsible for creating such variations over time and space.
  • Geography studies the interactive relationships between human activities and the physical environment of the earth.
  • The term 'geography' was first coined by Eratosthenese, a Greek scholar (276-194 BC).
Geography as an Integrating Discipline
Geography is a discipline of synthesis that attempts spatial synthesis, and history attempts temporal synthesis.
  • Geography studies the spatial organisation and integration of natural and human phenomena.
  • Geography has an interface with numerous natural and social sciences, attempting to comprehend the associations of phenomena as related in sections of reality.
  • Every geographical phenomenon undergoes change through time and can be explained temporally.
Branches of Geography
Geography can be studied systematically or regionally.
  • Systematic Approach: Introduced by Alexander Von Humboldt, studies phenomena world over as a whole and identifies spatial patterns.
  • Regional Approach: Developed by Karl Ritter, divides the world into regions and studies all geographical phenomena in a holistic manner.
  • Physical Geography: Includes geomorphology, climatology, hydrology, and soil geography.
  • Human Geography: Includes social/cultural geography, population and settlement geography, economic geography, historical geography, and political geography.
  • Biogeography: Includes plant geography, zoo geography, ecology/ecosystem, and environmental geography.
Branches of Geography Based on Regional Approach
The regional approach divides geography into various levels of study.
  • Regional Studies/Area Studies: Comprising Macro, Meso, and Micro Regional Studies.
  • Regional Planning: Comprising Country/Rural and Town/Urban Planning.
  • Regional Development and Regional Analysis.
Common Aspects of Geography
Two common aspects in every discipline.
  • Philosophy: Geographical Thought, Land and Human Interaction/Human Ecology.
  • Methods and Techniques: Cartography including Computer Cartography, Quantitative Techniques/Statistical Techniques, Field Survey Methods, Geo-informatics (Remote Sensing, GIS, GPS).


Origin of the Universe

This unit deals with:

  • The Big Bang Theory and the expanding universe.
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  • Big Bang Theory:
    • All matter in the universe was concentrated in a singular point.
    • Exploded around 13.7 billion years ago, leading to massive expansion.
    • First atoms formed within the first three minutes post-explosion.
    • Universe became transparent about 300,000 years after the Big Bang.

  • Expanding Universe:
    • Universe continues to expand, with galaxies moving apart.
    • Supported by Edwin Hubble's evidence in the 1920s.

Star Formation

This unit deals with:
  • Formation and development of stars and galaxies.
  • Uneven distribution of matter and energy led to gravitational differences.
  • Galaxies formed from large hydrogen clouds developing localized clumps of gas.
  • Stars formed approximately 5-6 billion years ago from these gas lumps.

Formation of Planets

This unit deals with:
  • Stages involved in the formation of planets from stars.
  • Initial Stage:
    • Stars formed from gas lumps within a nebula.
    • Formation of a core surrounded by a rotating disc of gas and dust.
  • Condensation:
    • Gas cloud condensed to form small rounded objects called planetesimals.
  • Accretion:
    • Planetesimals collided and stuck together to form planets.

Evolution of the Earth

This unit deals with:
  • The early conditions and development of Earth.
  • Initial Conditions:
    • Primordial Earth was barren, rocky, and hot with a thin atmosphere.
    • Material differentiation led to the formation of Earth's layers.
  • Formation of Crust:
    • Heavier materials sank, lighter ones rose, forming the crust.

Evolution of Lithosphere

This unit deals with:
  • The development and changes in Earth's lithosphere.
  • Earth was volatile during early stages, leading to material separation based on density.
  • Formation of a solid crust as lighter materials moved to the surface and cooled.

Evolution of Atmosphere and Hydrosphere

This unit deals with:
  • The changes in Earth's atmosphere and hydrosphere.
  • Atmosphere Composition:
    • Initial atmosphere of hydrogen and helium was stripped away.
    • Secondary atmosphere formed from degassing, containing water vapor, nitrogen, carbon dioxide, methane, and ammonia.
  • Formation of Oceans:
    • Condensation of water vapor led to the formation of oceans within 500 million years.

Origin of Life

This unit deals with:
  • The chemical reactions leading to the origin of life.
  • Life originated from chemical reactions forming complex organic molecules capable of self-replication.
  • Earliest life forms, similar to blue algae, appeared over 3,000 million years ago, with life beginning around 3,800 million years ago.


This unit deals with:
  • Exercises and questions based on the understanding of the unit.
  • Multiple Choice Questions:
    • The age of the Earth is approximately 4.6 billion years.
    • The formation of the atmosphere involved processes like solar winds, degassing, and photosynthesis, but not differentiation.
    • Life appeared around 3.8 billion years ago.
  • Short Answer Questions:
    • Differentiation: The process by which Earth materials separated based on density.
    • Initial Earth Surface: Initially rocky, barren, and hot.
    • Early Atmospheric Gases: Hydrogen, helium, water vapor, nitrogen, carbon dioxide, methane, and ammonia.
  • Long Answer Questions:
    • Big Bang Theory: The theory explaining the origin of the universe from a single point of infinite density and temperature, leading to continuous expansion.
    • Evolution Stages: Stages include the formation of a molten Earth, development of the crust, evolution of the atmosphere through volcanic degassing, and the origin of life.
  • Project Work:
    • Stardust Project: Collect information about the project "Stardust" focusing on the launching agency, purpose, and collection location of Stardust.

Geological Time Scale

This unit deals with:
  • The timeline of life's evolution from unicellular bacteria to modern humans.
  • Provides a summary of life's evolution based on fossil records found in geological formations.


Interior of the Earth

The earth's radius is 6,370 km, and its interior is explored through direct and indirect sources, including seismic activity and volcanic eruptions. Indirect sources include gravitational force, magnetic field, and meteor analysis. Direct sources such as mining and deep drilling projects provide solid earth material for analysis. Seismic waves from earthquakes help in understanding the layered interior structure of the earth.
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  • Direct sources such as mining and deep drilling projects provide solid earth material for analysis.
  • Indirect sources like gravitational force, magnetic field, and seismic activity offer insights into the earth's interior properties.
  • Seismic waves from earthquakes help in understanding the layered interior structure of the earth.


Earthquakes result from the release of energy along faults in the earth's crust, causing seismic waves to propagate. Different types of earthquake waves provide information about the earth's interior structure. Earthquake effects include ground shaking, differential ground settlement, and tsunamis.
  • Earthquakes are natural events caused by energy release along faults.
  • Seismic waves, including P-waves and S-waves, help in understanding the earth's interior layers.
  • Earthquake effects include ground shaking, differential ground settlement, and tsunamis.

Volcanoes and Volcanic Landforms

Volcanoes release gases, ashes, and lava to the surface, forming various landforms. Types of volcanoes include shield, composite, and cinder cone. Volcanic landforms include intrusive forms like batholiths, lacoliths, and dykes.
  • Volcanoes release gases, ashes, and lava to the surface, forming various landforms.
  • Types of volcanoes include shield, composite, and cinder cone.
  • Volcanic landforms include intrusive forms like batholiths, lacoliths, and dykes.

Types of Earthquakes

Earthquakes vary in types and causes, including tectonic earthquakes, volcanic earthquakes, and induced earthquakes from human activities such as mining and reservoir construction. Each type has its specific characteristics and impacts.
  • Tectonic earthquakes result from the sliding of rocks along fault planes.
  • Volcanic earthquakes occur in areas of active volcanoes.
  • Reservoir-induced earthquakes are triggered by large reservoirs.

Effects of Earthquake

Earthquakes have various hazardous effects, including ground shaking, landslides, soil liquefaction, and structural collapse. They can also trigger tsunamis and secondary hazards such as fires and floods. Understanding these effects is crucial for disaster preparedness and mitigation.
  • Ground shaking can cause structural damage and collapse of buildings.
  • Landslides and soil liquefaction can lead to mass movements of earth materials.
  • Tsunamis are large ocean waves generated by underwater earthquakes.
  • Secondary hazards include fires, floods, and infrastructure damage.


Weathering is the process of breaking down rocks, soils, and minerals through various physical, chemical, and biological mechanisms. Types of weathering include mechanical weathering (physical breakdown) and chemical weathering (chemical alteration). Weathering contributes to soil formation and landscape evolution.
  • Mechanical weathering includes processes like frost wedging and abrasion.
  • Chemical weathering involves reactions like hydrolysis and oxidation.
  • Biological weathering results from the actions of plants and animals.

Mass Wasting

Mass wasting, or mass movement, refers to the downslope movement of rock, soil, and debris under the influence of gravity. Factors influencing mass wasting include slope steepness, material type, water content, and vegetation cover. Types of mass wasting include slides, flows, and falls.
  • Mass wasting occurs when gravitational forces exceed resisting forces.
  • Factors such as slope angle, material type, and water content influence mass wasting.
  • Slides involve movement along a distinct surface, while flows exhibit chaotic movement.
  • Falls involve the free fall of material from a cliff or steep slope.

Factors Affecting Weathering

Several factors influence the rate and intensity of weathering processes, including climate, rock type, topography, and human activities. Climate affects weathering through temperature variations and precipitation patterns. Rock type determines susceptibility to chemical reactions and physical breakdown.
  • Climate influences weathering rates through freeze-thaw cycles and chemical reactions.
  • Rock type affects weathering susceptibility, with sedimentary rocks often weathering more rapidly.
  • Topography influences weathering by controlling water runoff and exposure to weathering agents.
  • Human activities such as mining and deforestation can accelerate weathering processes.

Effects of Weathering and Mass Wasting

Weathering and mass wasting contribute to landscape evolution and landform development. They shape terrain features such as valleys, cliffs, and slopes. Weathering produces regolith, the layer of fragmented rock and soil covering the earth's surface. Mass wasting events can lead to land instability and hazards such as rockfalls and debris flows.
  • Weathering and mass wasting shape landforms through erosion and deposition.
  • Regolith forms from weathering processes, providing a substrate for plant growth.
  • Mass wasting events can trigger secondary hazards like floods and landslides.

Preventing and Managing Mass Wasting

Strategies for preventing and managing mass wasting include slope stabilization, drainage control, and land use planning. Engineering measures such as retaining walls and slope reinforcement can mitigate slope instability. Vegetation planting helps stabilize slopes and reduce erosion. Land use zoning identifies areas prone to mass wasting for restricted development.
  • Engineering measures like retaining walls and slope reinforcement can stabilize slopes.
  • Vegetation planting improves slope stability and reduces erosion.
  • Land use zoning helps regulate development in hazardous areas prone to mass wasting.

Introduction to Plate Tectonics

Plate tectonics is the scientific theory that describes the large-scale motion of Earth's lithosphere, which is divided into several plates that float on the semi-fluid asthenosphere beneath. These plates interact at their boundaries, leading to various geological phenomena such as earthquakes, volcanoes, and mountain formation.
  • Plate tectonics explains the movement of Earth's lithosphere over the asthenosphere.
  • It is supported by evidence from seafloor spreading, paleomagnetism, and earthquake distribution.
  • The theory revolutionized the understanding of Earth's geological processes.

Types of Plate Boundaries

Plate boundaries are classified into three main types: divergent boundaries, where plates move apart; convergent boundaries, where plates collide; and transform boundaries, where plates slide past each other horizontally. Each type of boundary is associated with specific geological features and hazards.
  • Divergent boundaries create new crust through seafloor spreading and rift valley formation.
  • Convergent boundaries lead to subduction zones, mountain building, and volcanic activity.
  • Transform boundaries result in strike-slip faults and seismic activity.

Plate Tectonics and Earthquakes

Plate tectonics is closely associated with earthquakes, which occur primarily at plate boundaries due to the release of accumulated stress from plate motion. The movement of plates generates seismic waves that propagate through Earth's crust, causing ground shaking and potential damage to structures.
  • Most earthquakes occur along plate boundaries, particularly at subduction zones and transform faults.
  • Earthquake intensity and frequency vary depending on factors such as plate velocity and boundary type.
  • Seismic waves provide valuable information about Earth's interior structure.

Plate Tectonics and Volcanoes

Volcanic activity is closely linked to plate tectonics, with most volcanoes located at convergent and divergent plate boundaries. Subduction zones produce explosive stratovolcanoes, while divergent boundaries give rise to shield volcanoes and fissure eruptions. Volcanic eruptions release magma, gases, and ash, influencing climate and landscapes.
  • Subduction zones generate magma through the melting of descending oceanic crust.
  • Divergent boundaries produce magma from mantle upwelling and decompression melting.
  • Volcanic eruptions can have significant environmental and socio-economic impacts.

Impacts of Plate Tectonics on Landforms

Plate tectonics shapes Earth's surface by creating and modifying various landforms. Convergent boundaries produce mountain ranges, such as the Himalayas, through crustal collision and uplift. Divergent boundaries form rift valleys and mid-ocean ridges, contributing to seafloor spreading. Transform boundaries result in fault systems and linear landforms.
  • Mountain ranges like the Andes and Rockies are formed at convergent plate boundaries.
  • Mid-ocean ridges like the Mid-Atlantic Ridge are evidence of seafloor spreading.
  • Fault systems such as the San Andreas Fault are associated with transform boundaries.

Introduction to Rocks and Minerals

Rocks and minerals are the building blocks of Earth's crust. Rocks are aggregates of minerals, while minerals are naturally occurring inorganic substances with specific chemical compositions and crystal structures. Understanding rocks and minerals is essential for interpreting Earth's history, processes, and resources.
  • Rocks can be classified into three main types: igneous, sedimentary, and metamorphic.
  • Minerals are classified based on their chemical composition and crystal structure.
  • Studying rocks and minerals helps in geological mapping, resource exploration, and environmental assessment.

Types of Rocks

Igneous rocks form from the solidification of molten magma or lava. Sedimentary rocks result from the accumulation and cementation of sediments. Metamorphic rocks are formed by the alteration of pre-existing rocks under high temperature and pressure conditions. Each rock type has distinct characteristics and origins.
  • Igneous rocks can be intrusive (formed beneath the surface) or extrusive (formed on the surface).
  • Sedimentary rocks include clastic, chemical, and organic varieties.
  • Metamorphic rocks exhibit foliation or non-foliation depending on the degree of metamorphism.

Rock Cycle

The rock cycle describes the continuous processes of rock formation, alteration, and recycling on Earth's surface and interior. It involves the transformation of rocks between the three main types—igneous, sedimentary, and metamorphic—through processes such as melting, weathering, erosion, deposition, and metamorphism.
  • The rock cycle illustrates the interconnectedness of Earth's geospheric processes.
  • It operates over millions of years and involves interactions between the lithosphere, hydrosphere, atmosphere, and biosphere.
  • The rock cycle plays a crucial role in the formation of soil, the carbon cycle, and the Earth's surface evolution.

Mineral Properties and Identification

Minerals exhibit various physical and chemical properties that aid in their identification. These properties include color, streak, luster, hardness, cleavage, fracture, and specific gravity. By observing and testing these properties, geologists can classify and identify different minerals.
  • Color and streak are often the first characteristics observed in mineral identification.
  • Luster refers to the appearance of the mineral's surface in reflected light.
  • Hardness is determined by the mineral's resistance to scratching, measured on the Mohs scale.

Uses of Rocks and Minerals

Rocks and minerals have diverse industrial, commercial, and societal applications. They are used in construction materials, manufacturing processes, jewelry, technology, agriculture, and medicine. Understanding the properties and availability of rocks and minerals is essential for sustainable resource management.
  • Common uses include building materials (e.g., limestone, granite), metal ores (e.g., iron, copper), and gemstones (e.g., diamond, quartz).
  • Rocks and minerals are also essential in infrastructure development, energy production, and environmental remediation.
  • Sustainable extraction and recycling practices are crucial for minimizing environmental impacts and ensuring resource availability.


Plate Tectonics
Plate tectonics is a fundamental theory in geology that explains the movement and interactions of the Earth's lithospheric plates. The lithosphere, which consists of the Earth's crust and uppermost mantle, is divided into several large and small tectonic plates that float on the semi-fluid asthenosphere beneath them. These plates are in constant motion, driven by the convective currents in the mantle.

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There are three main types of plate boundaries:
  • Divergent Boundaries: At divergent boundaries, tectonic plates move away from each other. This movement leads to the upwelling of magma from the mantle, creating new crust. Divergent boundaries are typically found along mid-ocean ridges.
  • Convergent Boundaries: Convergent boundaries occur where tectonic plates collide. Depending on the types of plates involved, convergent boundaries can result in subduction zones, where one plate is forced beneath another, or continental collision zones, where two continental plates collide, leading to the formation of mountain ranges.
  • Transform Boundaries: Transform boundaries are characterized by plates sliding past each other horizontally. The friction between the plates builds up stress, which is released suddenly in the form of earthquakes when the plates slip past each other.
Plate tectonics is responsible for shaping the Earth's surface features, including the formation of mountains, ocean basins, and continents. It also plays a crucial role in geological processes such as volcanic eruptions and earthquakes.
  • The theory of plate tectonics revolutionized the field of geology, providing a unifying framework for understanding various geological phenomena.
  • Plate boundaries are dynamic zones where significant geological activity occurs, such as the creation of new crust, the recycling of old crust, and the release of seismic energy.
  • Understanding plate tectonics is essential for predicting and mitigating geological hazards, such as earthquakes, volcanic eruptions, and tsunamis.
Sea Floor Spreading
Sea floor spreading is a process associated with plate tectonics that occurs along mid-ocean ridges. At these underwater mountain chains, magma rises from the mantle to fill the gap created by the diverging tectonic plates. As the magma solidifies upon contact with seawater, it forms new oceanic crust. Over time, the accumulation of new crust pushes the existing crust away from the ridge, leading to the lateral movement of the tectonic plates.
  • Mid-ocean ridges are long underwater mountain chains where sea floor spreading occurs. These ridges mark divergent plate boundaries.
  • Sea floor spreading is supported by evidence such as magnetic stripes on the ocean floor, which indicate periods of normal and reversed polarity in Earth's magnetic field.
  • This process contributes to the constant renewal of the oceanic crust and plays a crucial role in the geological evolution of the Earth's surface.
Continental Drift
Continental drift is the hypothesis proposed by Alfred Wegener in the early 20th century, suggesting that the Earth's continents were once part of a single supercontinent called Pangaea. According to Wegener, Pangaea began to break apart approximately 200 million years ago, eventually giving rise to the continents as we know them today. Wegener supported his theory with evidence such as the fit of the continents, similar rock formations and fossils found on different continents, and glacial evidence.
  • Although Wegener's theory was initially met with skepticism, it gained widespread acceptance following advancements in geology and the discovery of plate tectonics.
  • Continental drift explains various geological phenomena, including the distribution of fossils, the formation of mountain ranges, and the occurrence of earthquakes and volcanic eruptions.
  • Continental drift is considered one of the key components of the broader theory of plate tectonics, which provides a comprehensive explanation for the movement of the Earth's lithospheric plates.
Ocean Currents
This section discusses ocean currents, which are continuous, directed movements of seawater. It explores the types of ocean currents, including surface and deep currents, and their drivers such as wind, temperature, and salinity gradients.
  • Ocean currents play a crucial role in redistributing heat and nutrients around the globe.
  • Surface currents are primarily driven by wind patterns and the Coriolis effect.
  • Deep ocean currents are driven by density differences caused by temperature and salinity variations.
Oceanic Climate
This section explores the influence of oceans on climate patterns. It discusses phenomena such as El Niño and La Niña, oceanic circulation patterns, and their impact on regional and global climate systems.
  • Oceans act as heat reservoirs, moderating climate extremes on coastal regions.
  • El Niño and La Niña events are ocean-atmosphere phenomena that affect weather patterns worldwide.
  • Oceanic circulation patterns, such as the Gulf Stream, influence climate in coastal areas.
Marine Ecosystems
This section discusses marine ecosystems, which are diverse communities of organisms inhabiting ocean environments. It explores different marine habitats, biodiversity hotspots, and human impacts on marine ecosystems.
  • Marine ecosystems include coral reefs, kelp forests, and deep-sea vents, among others.
  • They support a wide range of marine life, from microscopic plankton to large whales.
  • Human activities such as overfishing, pollution, and habitat destruction threaten marine biodiversity.
Marine Resources
This section covers marine resources, including fisheries, minerals, and energy sources. It discusses the importance of sustainable resource management and the challenges associated with overexploitation and pollution.
  • Marine fisheries provide a vital source of protein for millions of people worldwide.
  • Oceanic minerals such as manganese nodules and polymetallic sulfides have potential economic value.
  • Renewable energy sources such as tidal and wave power can be harnessed from the ocean.


Endogenic Processes
Endogenic geomorphic processes are driven by energy from within the earth, primarily due to radioactivity, rotational and tidal friction, and primordial heat. These processes include diastrophism and volcanism.

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  • Diastrophism:
    • Orogenic Processes: Involves severe folding and mountain building affecting long and narrow crustal belts.
    • Epeirogenic Processes: Involves uplift or warping of large crustal areas, leading to simple deformations.
    • Earthquakes: Minor local movements.
    • Plate Tectonics: Horizontal movements of crustal plates.
  • Volcanism: Involves the movement of molten rock (magma) towards or onto the Earth’s surface, forming various intrusive and extrusive volcanic forms.
  • Energy from within the Earth induces diastrophism and volcanism, leading to uneven crustal surfaces due to varying geothermal gradients and heat flow.
Exogenic Processes
Exogenic processes derive energy from the atmosphere, primarily influenced by solar energy and gradients created by tectonic factors. These processes include weathering, mass wasting, erosion, and deposition.

  • Weathering: Includes mechanical disintegration and chemical decomposition of rocks. It's an in-situ process with minimal material movement.
  • Mass Wasting: Down-slope movement of earth materials due to gravity, including landslides, debris flows, and rock falls.
  • Erosion and Deposition: Removal and transportation of earth materials by agents like water, wind, glaciers, and waves, followed by deposition at lower levels.
  • Exogenic processes involve wearing down (degradation) of reliefs and filling up (aggradation) of basins.
Weathering involves the mechanical disintegration and chemical decomposition of rocks through the actions of weather and climate. It is classified into three major groups:

  • Chemical Weathering: Processes include solution, carbonation, hydration, oxidation, and reduction, driven by water, air, and organic acids.
  • Physical (Mechanical) Weathering: Involves gravitational forces, temperature changes, crystal growth, and pressure changes. Key processes include thermal expansion and pressure release.
  • Biological Weathering: Caused by organisms like earthworms, termites, and plant roots, which mechanically break down rocks and introduce chemical changes through organic acids.
  • Weathering processes break down rocks in place, leading to soil formation and influencing landform development.
Mass Movements
Mass movements transfer rock debris downslope under gravity without the aid of geomorphic agents like water or ice. They range from slow movements like soil creep to rapid ones like landslides.

  • Types of Mass Movements:
    • Creep: Slow, gradual downslope movement of soil and rock.
    • Flow: Movement where material behaves like a fluid, e.g., mudflows.
    • Slide: Material moves downslope along a well-defined surface.
    • Fall: Free fall of detached rock from a cliff or steep slope.
  • Factors such as removal of support, slope steepening, overloading, heavy rainfall, earthquakes, and removal of vegetation trigger mass movements.
Landform Evolution
Landforms are shaped by a combination of endogenic and exogenic processes. The balance between these processes determines the landscape's evolution, with endogenic processes building up landforms and exogenic processes wearing them down.

  • Influence of Forces: Continuous interaction between endogenic forces (land building) and exogenic forces (land wearing) shapes the Earth’s surface, resulting in diverse landforms.
  • The balance between internal and external forces leads to a dynamic and constantly changing landscape.


Small to medium tracts or parcels of the earth’s surface are called landforms. These have their own physical shape, size, and materials, resulting from geomorphic processes and agents.

  • Landforms have a history of development and change through time, similar to the stages of life: youth, mature, and old age.
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  • Each landform evolves due to climatic changes and movements of land masses, leading to new modifications.
Running Water
In humid regions, running water is the most important geomorphic agent. It causes erosion and deposition, changing the land surface over time.

  • Overland Flow: Causes sheet erosion, leading to the formation of rills, gullies, and valleys.
  • Stream Flow: Creates V-shaped valleys, floodplains, and peneplains through erosion and deposition.
    • Streams in steep gradients lead to vigorous erosion, while gentler slopes result in increased deposition.
Erosional Landforms
Landforms created by the removal of earth materials through various geomorphic processes.

  • Cirque: Deep, wide troughs or basins found in glaciated mountains.
  • Horns and Serrated Ridges: Sharp peaks and ridges formed by the erosion of cirque walls.
  • Glacial Valleys/Troughs: U-shaped valleys with broad floors and steep sides.
  • Cirques often contain lakes after glaciers disappear, and horns are prominent peaks formed by erosion.
Depositional Landforms
Formed by the accumulation of sediments carried by geomorphic agents like water, wind, glaciers, and waves.

  • Alluvial Fans: Cone-shaped deposits formed when streams break into foot slope plains of low gradient.
  • Deltas: Deposits at river mouths, forming low cones with well-sorted materials.
  • Floodplains, Natural Levees, and Point Bars: Formed by deposition in river beds and floodplains.
  • Alluvial fans are common in mountain regions, while deltas form at the mouths of rivers, extending into the sea.
Groundwater refers to water that percolates through the soil and accumulates underground, primarily affecting limestone regions.

  • Pools, Sinkholes, Lapies, and Limestone Pavements: Features formed by the dissolution of rocks by groundwater.
  • Sinkholes and dolines are common in karst topography, leading to the formation of underground caves and voids.
Wind Action
In arid and semi-arid regions, wind is a significant geomorphic agent, shaping the land through erosion and deposition.

  • Erosional Landforms: Yardangs (streamlined ridges) and ventifacts (wind-sculpted rocks).
  • Depositional Landforms: Sand dunes (various forms) and loess (fine-grained deposits).
  • Wind action creates unique landscapes like desert pavements and sand seas (ergs).
Coastal Processes
Coastal geomorphology involves processes driven by waves, tides, and currents, shaping coastal landforms.

  • Erosional Features: Cliffs, wave-cut platforms, sea arches, and stacks.
  • Depositional Features: Beaches, spits, barrier islands, and lagoons.
  • Coastal areas constantly evolve due to the dynamic interaction of marine and terrestrial processes.
Glacial Processes
Glacial geomorphology involves the shaping of land by glaciers, leading to distinct erosional and depositional features.

  • Erosional Landforms: Glacial troughs, cirques, arêtes, and fjords.
  • Depositional Landforms: Moraines, drumlins, eskers, and outwash plains.
  • Glacial landscapes reflect past ice ages and the movement of glaciers over time.


Composition of the Atmosphere

The atmosphere primarily consists of:

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  • Gases: Nitrogen (approximately 78%), oxygen (around 21%), argon (about 0.9%), and trace gases including carbon dioxide (about 0.04%).
  • Water Vapor: Variable component, its concentration varying with location, temperature, and altitude.
  • Dust Particles: Solid particles such as sea salts, soil, smoke, pollen, ash, and dust.

Structure of the Atmosphere

The atmosphere is divided into several layers:

  • Troposphere: The lowest layer, extending from the Earth's surface to an average height of about 13 kilometers (8 miles) above sea level.
  • Stratosphere: Found above the troposphere, extending to about 50 kilometers (31 miles) above the Earth's surface.
  • Mesosphere: Extends from the stratopause to about 80 kilometers (50 miles) above the Earth's surface.
  • Thermosphere: Extending from the mesopause to about 400 kilometers (250 miles) above the Earth's surface.
  • Exosphere: The outermost layer, extending from the thermopause to about 10,000 kilometers (6,200 miles) above the Earth's surface.

Elements of Weather and Climate

Key elements influencing weather and climate include:

  • Temperature
  • Pressure
  • Winds
  • Humidity
  • Clouds
  • Precipitation

Multiple Choice Questions

  1. Which one of the following gases constitutes the major portion of the atmosphere?
    • (a) Oxygen
    • (b) Nitrogen
    • (c) Argon
    • (d) Carbon dioxide
    Answer: (b) Nitrogen
  2. Atmospheric layer important for human beings is:
    • (a) Stratosphere
    • (b) Mesosphere
    • (c) Troposphere
    • (d) Ionosphere
    Answer: (c) Troposphere
  3. Sea salt, pollen, ash, smoke soot, fine soil — these are associated with:
    • (a) Gases
    • (b) Dust particles
    • (c) Water vapor
    • (d) Meteors
    Answer: (b) Dust particles
  4. Oxygen gas is in negligible quantity at the height of atmosphere:
    • (a) 90 km
    • (b) 120 km
    • (c) 100 km
    • (d) 150 km
    Answer: (b) 120 km
  5. Which one of the following gases is transparent to incoming solar radiation and opaque to outgoing terrestrial radiation?
    • (a) Oxygen
    • (b) Nitrogen
    • (c) Helium
    • (d) Carbon dioxide
    Answer: (d) Carbon dioxide

Short Answer Questions

  1. What do you understand by atmosphere?
    • Answer: Atmosphere refers to the layer of gases surrounding a planet or celestial body.
  2. What are the elements of weather and climate?
    • Answer: The elements of weather and climate include temperature, pressure, winds, humidity, clouds, and precipitation.
  3. Describe the composition of atmosphere.
    • Answer: The atmosphere is composed of various gases, including nitrogen, oxygen, carbon dioxide, and trace gases, along with water vapor and dust particles.
  4. Why is troposphere the most important of all the layers of the atmosphere?
    • Answer: The troposphere is the most important layer because it contains the air we breathe and is where weather occurs.


Solar Radiation

Earth receives energy from the sun

Incoming solar radiation termed as insolation

Sun's rays fall obliquely due to Earth's geoid shape

Earth intercepts a small portion of solar energy

Annual insolation variations due to Earth-Sun distance

Variability influenced by factors like land-sea distribution and atmospheric circulation

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Variability of Insolation at the Surface of the Earth

Factors affecting insolation variations: Earth's rotation, angle of sun's rays, length of day, atmospheric transparency, land configuration

Earth's axis inclination affects insolation distribution

Higher latitudes receive less direct insolation

Slant sun rays cover less area, leading to energy distribution

Passage of Solar Radiation through the Atmosphere

Atmosphere mostly transparent to shortwave solar radiation

Water vapor, ozone, and gases absorb near infrared radiation

Visible spectrum scattering by small suspended particles

Atmospheric composition affects solar radiation transmission

Spatial Distribution of Insolation at the Earth’s Surface

Varies from about 320 Watt/m2 in tropics to about 70 Watt/m2 in poles

Maximum insolation received over subtropical deserts with least cloudiness

Equator receives comparatively less insolation than tropics

Generally, more insolation over continents than over oceans

Middle and higher latitudes receive less radiation in winter than in summer

Heating and Cooling of Atmosphere


  • Process: Flow of energy from warmer to cooler body when in contact
  • Importance: Heats lower layers of atmosphere


  • Process: Vertical heating of atmosphere through rising air currents
  • Occurs only in troposphere
  • Indirectly heats atmosphere via earth's radiation


  • Process: Horizontal movement of air
  • Relatively more important than vertical movement
  • Major cause of diurnal variation in middle latitudes

Terrestrial Radiation

Long Wave Radiation Absorption

  • Absorbed by atmospheric gases, especially carbon dioxide
  • Atmosphere indirectly heated by earth's radiation
  • Atmosphere radiates and transmits heat to space

Heat Budget of the Planet Earth

Earth neither accumulates nor loses heat overall

Maintains constant temperature

Insolation equals terrestrial radiation


Surface Inversion

  • Promotes stability in lower atmosphere layers
  • Smoke and dust particles collect beneath inversion layer, causing dense fogs
  • Lasts until sun warms earth

Mountain and Hill Inversion

  • Occurs due to air drainage
  • Cold air flows downhill, accumulating in pockets and valley bottoms
  • Protects plants from frost damage



Atmospheric pressure, measured in millibars (mb), is the weight of a column of air from sea level to the top of the atmosphere. At sea level, the average atmospheric pressure is 1,013.2 mb. This pressure decreases with height due to the decreasing density of air molecules.

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Vertical Variation of Pressure

In the lower atmosphere, pressure decreases rapidly with height, averaging about 1 mb per 10 meters increase in elevation. However, this decrease is not uniform and can vary based on factors such as temperature and humidity.

Horizontal Distribution of Pressure

Small differences in pressure have significant implications for wind direction and weather patterns. Weather maps display the distribution of sea-level pressure using isobars, connecting points of equal pressure. Low-pressure systems are characterized by lower pressure at their centers, while high-pressure systems have higher pressure at their centers.

World Distribution of Sea Level Pressure

Pressure belts across the globe vary with latitude and season. Near the equator, the Equatorial Low-Pressure Belt is characterized by low pressure due to intense heating. At around 30° N and 30° S, subtropical high-pressure belts form, while subpolar low-pressure belts are found near 60° N and 60° S. Near the poles, polar high-pressure belts dominate.

Forces Affecting Wind Velocity and Direction

Wind is primarily driven by pressure differences, resulting in three main forces: the pressure gradient force, frictional force, and Coriolis force. The pressure gradient force accelerates air from areas of high pressure to areas of low pressure. Frictional force influences wind speed near the Earth's surface, while the Coriolis force deflects winds to the right in the Northern Hemisphere and to the left in the Southern Hemisphere.

General Circulation of the Atmosphere

The general circulation of the atmosphere is driven by various factors, including latitudinal variations in heating, the emergence of pressure belts, the migration of these belts with the apparent path of the sun, the distribution of land and water, and the rotation of the Earth. This circulation pattern influences planetary winds and ocean currents, which, in turn, affect global climate patterns.

Air Masses

Air masses are large bodies of air with uniform temperature and humidity characteristics. They form over source regions, which can be oceans, deserts, or polar regions. Five major types of air masses are recognized, including maritime tropical (mT), continental tropical (cT), maritime polar (mP), continental polar (cP), and continental arctic (cA).


Fronts are boundaries between air masses with different temperature and humidity characteristics. Cold fronts occur when cold air advances into warm air, while warm fronts form when warm air advances into cold air. Stationary fronts occur when neither air mass displaces the other, while occluded fronts form when a cold front overtakes a warm front.

Extra-Tropical Cyclones

Extra-tropical cyclones are large-scale weather systems that form in the middle and high latitudes. They are characterized by a central area of low pressure and associated with weather phenomena such as rain, snow, and strong winds. These cyclones often develop along polar fronts, where warm and cold air masses meet.

Tropical Cyclones

Tropical cyclones, also known as hurricanes or typhoons, are intense tropical storms characterized by low pressure, strong winds, and heavy rainfall. They originate over warm ocean waters and can cause significant damage when they make landfall. Tropical cyclones are fueled by the release of latent heat from condensation within towering cumulonimbus clouds.

Thunderstorms and Tornadoes

Thunderstorms are convective weather systems characterized by lightning, thunder, heavy rain, and sometimes hail. Tornadoes are violent, rotating columns of air that extend from thunderstorms to the ground. These phenomena are often associated with severe weather conditions and can cause significant damage and loss of life.

Equatorial Low-Pressure Belt

Location: Near the equator (0° latitude).


  • Result of intense insolation, causing warm air to rise and create a low-pressure zone.
  • Convergence of trade winds from the Northern and Southern Hemispheres.
  • Associated with high humidity and frequent convectional rainfall.

Subtropical High-Pressure Belts

Location: Around 30° N and 30° S latitudes.


  • Formed by descending air from the Hadley Cells.
  • Dominated by subsidence and divergence, leading to stable weather conditions.
  • Regions of consistent trade winds, often associated with arid conditions and desert formation (e.g., Sahara Desert).

Subpolar Low-Pressure Belts

Location: Around 60° N and 60° S latitudes.


  • Formed by the convergence of polar easterlies and mid-latitude westerlies.
  • Areas of rising warm air interacting with descending cold air, leading to stormy weather and frontal activity.
  • Influence mid-latitude weather patterns, including the development of extratropical cyclones.

Polar High-Pressure Belts

Location: Near the poles (90° N and 90° S latitudes).


  • Result from cold, dense air subsiding at the poles.
  • Associated with extremely low temperatures and stable atmospheric conditions.
  • Influence the behavior of polar easterlies and polar air masses, contributing to polar climates and ice formation.

Intertropical Convergence Zone (ITCZ)

Location: Near the equator, shifting with the seasonal migration of the Sun.


  • Zone of low pressure and convergence, where trade winds from the Northern and Southern Hemispheres meet.
  • Associated with convective activity, thunderstorms, and heavy rainfall.
  • Position varies seasonally, following the zone of maximum insolation.

Polar Front

Location: Boundary between polar air masses and mid-latitude air masses.


  • Zone of significant temperature contrast and atmospheric instability.
  • Source of cyclogenesis and extratropical cyclone development.
  • Marks the transition zone between polar easterlies and mid-latitude westerlies.

Monsoon Trough

Location: Seasonally migrates with the ITCZ.


  • Influences seasonal reversal of winds and precipitation patterns in regions experiencing monsoon climates.
  • Shifts northward in summer and southward in winter, affecting the Indian subcontinent, Southeast Asia, and parts of Africa.



The air contains water vapour, ranging from zero to four per cent by volume of the atmosphere, and plays a crucial role in weather phenomena. Water exists in the atmosphere in three forms: gaseous, liquid, and solid. The moisture in the atmosphere originates from water bodies through evaporation and from plants through transpiration. This continuous exchange of water occurs through evaporation, transpiration, condensation, and precipitation.

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Water vapour in the air is referred to as humidity and is quantitatively expressed in different ways. Absolute humidity represents the actual amount of water vapour per unit volume of air and is measured in grams per cubic metre. The air's ability to hold water vapour depends on its temperature. Relative humidity compares the moisture present in the atmosphere to its full capacity at a given temperature.

Saturated Air and Dew Point

When the air contains moisture to its full capacity at a given temperature, it is saturated, meaning it cannot hold any additional moisture. The temperature at which saturation occurs is known as the dew point.


Evaporation is the process by which water transforms from a liquid to a gaseous state, primarily driven by heat. Increased temperature enhances water absorption and retention capacity in the air, promoting evaporation.


Condensation occurs when water vapour in the air is transformed into liquid or solid form due to the loss of heat. Factors such as cooling, pressure changes, and the presence of condensation nuclei influence the process of condensation.

Forms of Condensation

Condensation can result in various forms, including dew, frost, fog, and clouds. Dew forms when moisture is deposited in the form of water droplets on cooler surfaces. Frost forms when condensation occurs below the freezing point, resulting in ice crystals. Fog and mist are clouds with their bases near or at the ground, reducing visibility. Clouds are masses of water droplets or ice crystals formed by condensation in free air at considerable elevations.

Types of Precipitation

Precipitation occurs when condensed particles grow in size and fall to the Earth's surface. Rainfall and snowfall are common forms of precipitation. Sleet is frozen raindrops, while hail forms when raindrops solidify into small rounded pieces of ice. Precipitation types include convectional, orographic, and cyclonic or frontal rainfall.

Types of Rainfall

Rainfall can be classified into three main types:

  1. Convectional Rain: This type of rainfall occurs when heated air rises, expands, cools, and condenses to form clouds, leading to heavy rainfall often accompanied by thunder and lightning. It is common in equatorial regions and interior parts of continents.
  2. Orographic Rain: Orographic rainfall occurs when moist air is forced to ascend over a mountain barrier, leading to cooling, condensation, and rainfall on the windward side of the mountain. The leeward side, or rain shadow area, receives less rainfall.
  3. Cyclonic Rain: Cyclonic rainfall is associated with the convergence of air masses, often occurring along fronts where warm and cold air masses meet. It is characterized by prolonged precipitation over large areas and is common in extratropical cyclones.

World Distribution of Rainfall

Rainfall varies across the Earth's surface, with coastal areas generally receiving more rainfall than interior regions. Different precipitation regimes are identified based on annual precipitation amounts, with equatorial regions, coastal areas, and monsoon lands receiving heavy rainfall. Rainfall distribution is influenced by factors such as latitude, topography, and prevailing wind patterns.

Exercises - Answers

  1. Answers - Multiple Choice Questions:
    1. (i) Nitrogen
    2. (ii) Evaporation
    3. (iii) Saturated air
    4. (iv) Cirrus
  2. Answers of the questions in about 30 words:
    1. Three types of precipitation: Rainfall, snowfall, and sleet.
    2. Relative humidity compares the moisture present in the atmosphere to its full capacity at a given temperature.
    3. The amount of water vapour decreases rapidly with altitude due to decreasing air pressure and temperature.
    4. Clouds are formed by the condensation of water vapour in free air and are classified based on their height, expanse, density, and transparency.
  3. Answer of the questions in about 150 words:
    1. World distribution of precipitation is influenced by factors such as latitude, topography, and prevailing wind patterns. Coastal areas, equatorial regions, and monsoon lands receive heavy rainfall, while interior regions and rain shadow areas experience comparatively lower precipitation. The interaction of various atmospheric and geographical factors determines the spatial and temporal distribution of rainfall across different parts of the globe. Understanding these patterns is crucial for assessing water resources, agricultural productivity, and ecosystem dynamics in different regions.

Climate Classification and Climate Change

Climate Classification

Empirical Classification: Based on observed data (temperature and precipitation).

Genetic Classification: Organizes climates according to their causes.

Applied Classification: Used for specific purposes.

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Koeppen’s Scheme of Classification

Five Major Climatic Groups:

  • A (Tropical): Coldest month temperature ≥ 18°C.
  • B (Dry): Potential evaporation exceeds precipitation.
  • C (Warm Temperate): Coldest month temperature between -3°C and 18°C.
  • D (Cold Snow Forest): Coldest month temperature ≤ -3°C.
  • E (Cold): All months have average temperatures < 10°C.
  • H (Highland): Cold due to elevation.

Group A: Tropical Humid Climates

Af (Tropical Wet): No dry season. High temperatures, high annual rainfall.

Am (Tropical Monsoon): Monsoonal with a short dry season.

Aw (Tropical Wet and Dry): Winter dry season.

Group B: Dry Climates

BSh (Subtropical Steppe) and BWh (Subtropical Desert): Low-latitude, semi-arid and arid.

BSk (Mid-latitude Steppe) and BWk (Mid-latitude Desert): Mid-latitude, semi-arid and arid.

Group C: Warm Temperate Climates

Cfa (Humid Subtropical): No dry season, warm summer.

Cs (Mediterranean): Dry, hot summer.

Cfb (Marine West Coast): No dry season, cool summer.

Group D: Cold Snow Forest Climates

Df (Humid Continental): No dry season, severe winter.

Dw (Subarctic): Winter dry and very severe.

Group E: Polar Climates

ET (Tundra): No true summer.

EF (Polar Ice Cap): Perennial ice.

Highland Climates (H)

Governed by topography, with large temperature and precipitation variability.

Climate Change

Natural and continuous process influenced by astronomical (solar output and Milankovitch oscillations) and terrestrial (volcanism) causes.

Anthropogenic effects, especially greenhouse gas emissions, are likely to cause global warming.

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Historical Climate Variability

Climate has been variable throughout geological history, with glacial and inter-glacial periods.

Recent inter-glacial period began 10,000 years ago.

Recent Climate Trends

1990s: Warmest decade of the century, extreme weather events, severe drought in the Sahel (1967-1977), Dust Bowl in the US (1930s).

Post-1885: Upward temperature trend, slowed after 1940.

Causes of Climate Change

Astronomical Causes:

  • Changes in solar output (sunspot activity).
  • Milankovitch oscillations (variations in Earth's orbit, axial tilt, and wobbling).

Terrestrial Causes:

  • Volcanism (aerosols reduce solar radiation reaching Earth’s surface).

Anthropogenic Causes:

  • Increased greenhouse gas emissions leading to global warming.

Global Warming

Enhanced greenhouse effect due to increased greenhouse gases in the atmosphere.

Likely consequences: Rising global temperatures, more extreme weather events.


Hydrological Cycle

Describes the movement of water on, in, and above the earth.

Water is a cyclic resource, reused and circulated through the earth's hydrosphere in liquid, solid, and gaseous forms.

About 71% of the earth's water is in oceans, with the rest in glaciers, groundwater, lakes, and the atmosphere.

Approximately 59% of water that falls on land evaporates back into the atmosphere; the rest runs off, infiltrates, or forms glaciers.

Water demand is increasing, leading to water crises exacerbated by pollution.

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Relief of the Ocean Floor

Oceans are divided into the Pacific, Atlantic, Indian, Southern, and Arctic Oceans.

Major ocean floor divisions include the Continental Shelf, Continental Slope, Deep Sea Plain, and Oceanic Deeps.

Minor features include mid-oceanic ridges, seamounts, submarine canyons, guyots, and atolls.

The ocean floor features the world's largest mountain ranges, deepest trenches, and largest plains formed by tectonic, volcanic, and depositional processes.

Temperature of Ocean Waters

Temperature distribution is affected by latitude, unequal distribution of land and water, prevailing winds, and ocean currents.

Surface water temperature decreases from the equator towards the poles due to decreasing insolation.

The ocean's heating and cooling process is slower than land.

The vertical temperature structure of oceans shows a thermocline, a boundary layer with rapid temperature decrease below the surface layer.

Salinity of Ocean Waters

Salinity is the total content of dissolved salts in seawater, expressed in parts per thousand (ppt).

Factors affecting salinity include evaporation, precipitation, river inflow, wind, and ocean currents.

The average salinity of open oceans ranges between 33 ppt and 37 ppt.

Vertical salinity variation depends on location, with higher salinity in regions with high evaporation and lower in areas with fresh water inflow.

Movements of Ocean Water

Waves are energy-driven disturbances on the water surface.

Tides are the periodic rise and fall of sea levels caused by the gravitational forces of the Moon, the Sun, and Earth's rotation.

Spring Tides occur when the Earth, Sun, and Moon are in a straight line.

Neap Tides occur when the Sun and Moon form a right angle with the Earth.

Ocean currents are continuous movements of ocean water, classified into surface currents (caused by wind) and deep water currents (driven by water density differences).

Major Ocean Currents

Pacific Ocean: North Pacific, California, Kuroshio, and Oyashio currents.

Atlantic Ocean: Gulf Stream, North Atlantic Drift, Canary, and Brazil currents.

Indian Ocean: Agulhas, Somali, and West Australian currents.

Movement of Ocean Water


Nature of Waves: Waves are energy moving across the ocean surface, while water particles move in small circles. The energy for waves is primarily provided by the wind. Waves slow down as they approach the beach due to friction with the sea floor and eventually break when the water depth is less than half the wavelength.

Wave Characteristics:

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  • Crest and Trough: Highest and lowest points of a wave.
  • Wave Height: Vertical distance from the bottom of a trough to the top of a crest.
  • Amplitude: Half of the wave height.
  • Period: Time interval between successive crests or troughs.
  • Wavelength: Horizontal distance between successive crests.
  • Speed: Rate at which the wave moves through the water.
  • Frequency: Number of waves passing a given point per second.


Nature of Tides: Periodical rise and fall of sea level due to the gravitational pull of the moon and the sun. Tides can be influenced by meteorological effects (surges) and vary greatly in frequency, magnitude, and height.

Tidal Forces: Combination of gravitational pull and centrifugal force creates tidal bulges on the Earth. These forces cause two major tidal bulges, one facing the moon and one on the opposite side.

Types of Tides:

  • Semi-diurnal Tide: Two high tides and two low tides each day.
  • Diurnal Tide: One high tide and one low tide each day.
  • Mixed Tide: Variations in height of successive high and low tides.
  • Spring Tides: Occur when the sun, moon, and earth are in a straight line, causing higher tides.
  • Neap Tides: Occur when the sun and moon are at right angles, causing lower tides.

Importance of Tides

Predictable and assist in navigation and fishing activities.

Help in desilting and removing polluted water from river estuaries.

Can be harnessed for generating electricity (e.g., in Canada, France, Russia, China).

Ocean Currents

Nature of Ocean Currents: Continuous flow of water in a definite path influenced by primary forces (solar heating, wind, gravity, Coriolis force) and secondary forces (water density variations).

Types of Currents:

  • Surface Currents: Upper 400 m of the ocean, influenced by wind.
  • Deep Water Currents: 90% of ocean water, influenced by density variations and gravity.
  • Cold Currents: Bring cold water into warm areas, usually found on west coasts of continents in low and middle latitudes and on east coasts in high latitudes.
  • Warm Currents: Bring warm water into cold areas, usually observed on east coasts of continents in low and middle latitudes and on west coasts in high latitudes.

Effects of Ocean Currents

Influence coastal climates: West coasts in tropical/subtropical latitudes have cooler temperatures, while west coasts in higher latitudes have a distinct marine climate with mild winters and cool summers.

Promote mixing of water: Warm and cold currents mix, replenishing oxygen and favoring the growth of planktons, which supports fish populations. This makes these areas prime fishing grounds.

Major Ocean Currents

Pacific Ocean: North Pacific, California, Kuroshio, and Oyashio currents.

Atlantic Ocean: Gulf Stream, North Atlantic Drift, Canary, and Brazil currents.

Indian Ocean: Agulhas, Somali, and West Australian currents.


Multiple Choice Questions:

  • 1. Upward and downward movement of ocean water is known as the:
    • (a) tide
    • (b) current
    • (c) wave
    • (d) none of the above
  • 2. Spring tides are caused by:
    • (a) The moon and the sun pulling the earth gravitationally in the same direction.
    • (b) The moon and the sun pulling the earth gravitationally in the opposite direction.
    • (c) Indentation in the coastline.
    • (d) None of the above.
  • 3. The distance between the earth and the moon is minimum when the moon is in:
    • (a) Aphelion
    • (b) Perigee
    • (c) Perihelion
    • (d) Apogee
  • 4. The earth reaches its perihelion in:
    • (a) October
    • (b) September
    • (c) July
    • (d) January

Short Answer Questions:

  • 1. What are waves?
  • 2. Where do waves in the ocean get their energy from?
  • 3. What are tides?
  • 4. How are tides caused?
  • 5. How are tides related to navigation?

Long Answer Questions:

  • 1. How do currents affect the temperature? How does it affect the temperature of coastal areas in N. W. Europe?
  • 2. What are the causes of currents?

Project Work:

  • 1. Visit a lake or a pond and observe the movement of waves. Throw a stone and notice how waves are generated.
  • 2. Take a globe and a map showing the currents of the oceans. Discuss why certain currents are warm or cold and why they deflect in certain places and examine the reasons.

Life on Earth


Biodiversity itself is a combination of two words, Bio (life) and diversity (variety). In simple terms, biodiversity is the number and variety of organisms found within a specified geographic region. It refers to the varieties of plants, animals and micro-organisms, the genes they contain and the ecosystems they form. It relates to the variability among living organisms on the earth, including the variability within and between the species and that within and between the ecosystems.

Biodiversity is our living wealth. It is a result of hundreds of millions of years of evolutionary history.

Biodiversity can be discussed at three levels : (i) Genetic diversity; (ii) Species diversity; (iii) Ecosystem diversity.

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Genetic Diversity

Genes are the basic building blocks of various life forms. Genetic biodiversity refers to the variation of genes within species. Groups of individual organisms having certain similarities in their physical characteristics are called species. Human beings genetically belong to the homo sapiens group and also differ in their characteristics such as height, colour, physical appearance, etc., considerably. This is due to genetic diversity. This genetic diversity is essential for a healthy breeding of population of species.

Species Diversity

This refers to the variety of species. It relates to the number of species in a defined area. The diversity of species can be measured through its richness, abundance and types. Some areas are more rich in species than others. Areas rich in species diversity are called hotspots of diversity.

Ecosystem Diversity

You have studied about the ecosystem in the earlier chapter. The broad differences between ecosystem types and the diversity of habitats and ecological processes occurring within each ecosystem type constitute the ecosystem diversity. The ‘boundaries’ of communities (associations of species) and ecosystems are not very rigidly defined. Thus, the demarcation of ecosystem boundaries is difficult and complex. Ecosystem evolves and sustains without any reason. That means, every organism, besides extracting its needs, also contributes something of useful to other organisms.

Importance of Biodiversity

Biodiversity plays a crucial role in various aspects of life on Earth:

  • Ecological Role: Species of many kinds perform some function or the other in an ecosystem. Biodiversity ensures the stability and resilience of ecosystems, making them better able to withstand environmental changes.
  • Economic Role: Biodiversity provides valuable resources such as food, medicine, timber, and genetic material for agriculture and industry. It also contributes to tourism and recreation.
  • Scientific Role: Each species offers insights into the processes of evolution and ecosystem functioning. Studying biodiversity enhances our understanding of life on Earth and informs conservation efforts.

Loss of Biodiversity

Human activities have led to a rapid decline in biodiversity:

  • Habitat destruction
  • Overexploitation of resources
  • Introduction of invasive species
  • Pollution
  • Climate change