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Climate Change: Understanding Protocols and Conventions


Climate change, driven by global warming, is a pressing environmental issue affecting the entire planet. This article explores the various protocols and conventions established to mitigate climate change and their significance in shaping global climate policy.

Kyoto Protocol

The Kyoto Protocol, adopted in 1997 and enforced in 2005, was one of the first major international treaties aimed at reducing greenhouse gas emissions. It set binding emission reduction targets for developed countries and established mechanisms like carbon trading.

Paris Agreement

The Paris Agreement, adopted in 2015, is a landmark accord within the United Nations Framework Convention on Climate Change (UNFCCC). Its goal is to limit global warming to below 2 degrees Celsius, preferably to 1.5 degrees, compared to pre-industrial levels. Unlike the Kyoto Protocol, it includes commitments from all countries, not just developed ones.


The United Nations Framework Convention on Climate Change (UNFCCC) is an international environmental treaty established at the Earth Summit in Rio de Janeiro in 1992. It serves as the foundation for international climate change negotiations and has been instrumental in the creation of subsequent protocols and agreements.

Impact of Climate Change

Climate change impacts include rising sea levels, increased frequency of extreme weather events, loss of biodiversity, and adverse effects on human health. Addressing these challenges requires robust international cooperation and adherence to the established protocols and conventions.